Project M3 > Models>Teacher Education




PreK-12 Models

Teacher Education Models

Content Area Models

Parent Models






The rubric below will  help you evaluate the examples of integration that you find or create for your classes.

Level of Adoption

Teacher behavior

Student behavior Technology tools


Teachers have little or no experience with technology and demonstrate little interest in changing their instruction. Teachers have little interaction with colleagues about their success and failures with technology. Students may be sent to computer lab for instruction.

Lecture, seatwork, and recitation are common.

Technology is text-based. Blackboards may be replaced with whiteboards. Overhead projectors are used. Videotapes support lectures.





Teachers' concerns shift from learning how to use the computer to learning how to use the technology to support text-based instruction. Teachers provide technical assistance to their colleagues and share knowledge abut how to manage the equipment and use the software. Students interact with technology to replace paper and pen activities or drill and practice. Databases and spreadsheets may be used to collect and compare information.  Computers are present in the classroom or class is scheduled regularly in the computer lab. Software includes database, spreadsheet, web browser, word processing, desktop publishing.




Teachers begin to share instructional ideas instead of technical assistance. Collaboration on instructional topics moves teachers beyond text-based activities. Teachers experiment with new technologies. Students' productivity has increased, allowing teachers to engage in higher-level activities and problem-solving. Quality of students' work improves as well. Problem-based technologies, multimedia, presentations, graphics. Software will include CDs with problem-based learning and simulations.
Appropriation Team-teaching, interdisciplinary project-based instruction, and individually-paced instruction become more common. Teachers begin to question old patterns and the speculate about the causes behind changes they are seeing in their students. Students work collaboratively to solve problems or create projects. Activities include individualized instruction, collaborative group work, simulation, distance learning, self-paced, and multimodal learning. Digital camera, computers, laptops, presentation and multimedia software. Increased use of network for file-sharing and collaboration.
Invention Teachers are ready to implement fundamental changes in their teaching approaches. They are more disposed to view teaching as an active, creative, and socially interactive process. Knowledge is viewed as something children construct and less like something to be transferred. Students are engaged in construction and constructive activities.  Students are active participants. Technology is available anytime within and without classrooms.

(Adapted from stages of adoption as described in Dwyer, Ringstaff, & Sandholtz, 1992)

Credits & References

Dwyer, D.C., Ringstaff, C., & Sandholtz, J.H. (1992). The evolution of teachers' instructional beliefs and practices in high-access-to-technology classrooms first-fourth year findings. Apple Computer. Retrieved June 6, 2001, from the World Wide Web:


 Contact Us:
Marsha Gladhart
Project Co-Director

College Of Education

1845 Fairmount
Wichita, KS 67260-0028
Tonya Witherspoon